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India in a Warming WorldIntegrating Climate Change and Development$

Navroz K. Dubash

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780199498734

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199498734.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 20 January 2022

(p.560) Index

(p.560) Index

Source:
India in a Warming World
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Adams, Douglas, 537
Adaptation Fund (AF), 223–4, 383
aerosols, 36
Aggarwal, P. K., 40
agriculture, 519–32
adaptation costs and benefits, 526–7
climate change impacts on, 520–4
energy consumption in, 441–2
mainstreaming adaptation, 529–30
mainstreaming climate resilience, 530–1
vulnerability to climate change, 524
Ahluwalia, Montek Singh, 159
Allen, Myles, 51
Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS), 118, 146, 147
Arulalan, T., 49
Ashe, Teresa, 304
Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network (ACCCRN), 462
Asian Development Bank, 391
Assam Climate Change Management Society (ACCMS), 378
attribution, extreme event, 50–6
Chennai flood, 54
extreme heat in Phalodi, Rajasthan, 55–6
heatwave in Andhra Pradesh, 52–3
aviation emissions, 233–4
analysing and projecting, 239–40
revenue tonne kilometres, 239–40
Bali Action Plan, 404
Bali Declaration, 232
BASIC countries, 12, 124–6, 129, 136, 158–62, 165, 166, 184, 209, 308, 318
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), 127
Bharat Stage (BS) VI emission, 281
Billett, Simon, 304
‘biome shifts’, 487
Bloomberg, Michael, 275
Bollasina, Massimo, 40
Bombay Stock Exchange, 281
Brown, Gordon, 163, 164
Biennial Update Report (BUR), 342, 409
Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), 412, 436, 438, 450 (p.561)
Bush, George W., 194
business and climate change mitigation, 273–82
Indian companies, 277–9
Paris Agreement, 274–5
stakeholder pressure, 276
Tata Council for Community Initiatives, 278
Tata Global Sustainability Council, 279
Cancun Agreements, 126, 207
carbon credit, 12, 193, 235, 355, 484
carbon sequestration, forests and, 479–85
biophysical estimates, 481–2
trade-offs, 482–5
carbon space, 97–9, 102–3, 106, 132, 212
Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI), 69
Centre for Community Economics and Development Consultants Society, 266
Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), 83–6, 87, 133, 135, 237, 260–1
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 86
civil society organization (CSO), 253–67
climate justice, 257–64
government and industry government relationship and, 258–9
political opportunities for, 256–7
politics of, 255
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), 119–20, 153, 154, 193–4, 235, 310, 389
Clean Technology Fund (CTF), 391
Climate Action Network (CAN), 265–6
Climate Action Network South Asia (CANSA), 264–6
Climate Change Finance Unit (CCFU), 341
Climate Equity Reference Calculator (CERC), 105
Climate Equity Reference Framework (CERF), 103–6, 107
climate finance, 381–95
Clean Development Mechanism, 389
Clean Technology Fund, 391
domestic public finance, 387, 389
institutional mechanisms and implications for scaling up, 390–4
multilateral development banks, 384
needs, drivers, and sources of, 386–90
climate institutionalization, 339–40
climate justice, 16, 75, 178, 180–1, 255, 257–67, 285–6
INDC and, 262
international vs. domestic, 261–4
Climate Justice Now (CJN), 265–6 (p.562)
Climate-Related Financial Disclosures (TCFD), 275
Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN), 405, 408, 418
Clinton, Hillary, 165, 198
coastal and island ecosystems
back-up strategies for climate change, 553–4
building climate resilience for, 550–4
climate change on, impacts of, 539–46
climate change preparedness, 546–9
interconnectedness, 544
Lakshadweep archipelago, 549–50
non-linear ecosystem properties, 544
services provided by, 538–9
species and ecosystem responses, 539–43
Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ), 547
Cole, S., 528
co-benefits, 18, 23–5, 258, 304, 331–3, 336, 345, 355, 376, 386, 392, 429, 432, 465, 532
common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR), 116, 126, 164, 197, 211, 234, 318–20
common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDR&RC), 11, 94–5, 99, 104–5, 117, 210–11, 216
Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), 135, 276
Conference of the Parties (COP)
COP 1, 118–9, 129, 133
COP 3, 120, 129
COP 11, 121, 130
COP 13, 122, 130, 223, 404
COP 15, 96, 103, 108, 122–5, 130, 136, 224, 305, 405, 480
COP 16, 125, 130, 405
COP 17, 125, 130–1, 224
COP 20,
‘contingent unilateralism’, 235
Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention), 234
Copenhagen Accord, 126, 166, 207, 212, 314, 382
Copenhagen Climate Summit, 123, 157–68, 197, 198
corporate social responsibility (CSR), 278
Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), 55
cumulative emissions, 100–1, 103–7, 143
Cyclone Aila, 68
Dalai Lama, 158
Das, Shankar, 68
Dasgupta, Chandrashekhar, 12, 117, 163, 165
Dave, Anil M., 262
Dell, M., 523
Dileepkumar, R., 49
Diospyros melanoxylon, 489
domestic energy supply, 442–8
coal and thermal power, 443–5
electricity distribution utilities, 447–8 (p.563)
renewable energy-based electricity generation, 445–7
total primary energy supply, 443
Dow Jones Sustainability Index, 281
D’Souza, Mario, 107
Durban Platform, 209, 210
Economic Survey 2011–12, 384
Economic Survey 2012–13, 386
Electricity Act, 288
electricity distribution utilities, 447–8
electricity distribution companies (DISCOMs), 288, 433, 439, 442, 447–8
El Niño effect, 35–6
El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), 543
at Lakshadweep, 549
emissions, greenhouse gas (GHG)
annual, 9, 10, 103, 107
cumulative, 9, 100–1, 103–7, 143
energy use and, 408–9, 427
emissions intensity, of India’s GDP, 124, 128, 130–1, 330, 340, 409, 430–1
Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), 231, 234
Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC), 413, 436–7, 463
energy consumption, 432–42
agriculture sector, 441–2
industrial energy consumption, 438–9
residential sector, 434–8
transport sector, 440–41
Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL), 412, 436
energy sector, technology transition in, 408–16
energy–climate–development nexus, 408–9
energy efficiency, 412–13
renewable energy, 409–11
energy sector and climate change mitigation
domestic energy supply, 442–8
energy-related programmes and schemes, 433–4
fossil fuel–free capacity, share of, 431
governance and politics, 448–51
integrated planning of, 449
role of energy in India’s climate policy, 429–32
trade union responses, 289–94
transition in India, 286–9
Energy Sector Management Assistance programme (ESMAP), 411
Energy Transitions Commission, 279
Environmental Investigation Agency, 235
equity, climate, 11–12
and global climate regime, 93–6
justice and burden sharing, 318–21
in long-term mitigation, 92–109
operationalizing, 96–100
global mitigation target, 97–9
and Paris Agreement, 107–9
specific proposals to operationalize, 100–7
carbon budget approach, 106–7 (p.564)
Climate Equity Reference Framework, 103–6
contraction and convergence (C&C) approach, 100–3
European Union (EU), 118–19
aviation emissions, 234
CER trading under, 389
Emissions Trading Scheme, 231
Executive Committee on Climate Change (ECCC), 340–1
Expert Committee on Climate Change, 350
Fabius, Laurent, 173–4
Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), 135, 276
Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), 70
Forest Rights Act (FRA), 484–5
forests, 477–91
biodiversity conservation, 479
and carbon sequestration, 479–85
climate change on, impact of, 486–90
non-timber forest products, 478
social ecology of forests, 478–9
Foundation for Ecological Research, Advocacy and Learning (FERAL), 70
Froman, Mike, 165–6
Ganga, 66, 513
Indo-gangetic plain, 520
Ganga–Brahmaputra–Meghna delta, 66–7
Ganga Mission, 513
glaciers, 37
Global Environment Facility (GEF), 154, 383
global market-based measures (GMBM) scheme, 234–6
for aviation emissions, 239
Global North, 254, 304
Global South, 256
‘Global Stabilization Trajectory’, 98
Global Stocktake (GST), 108
global warming in an unequal world
CO2 and methane accumulation, responsibility for, 86–7
lack of third world research, 87–90
global warming potential (GWP), 235–6
Green Climate Fund (GCF), 164, 224, 284, 376, 383, 393, 484
Green Indian Mission (GIM), 482–3
Green Urban Mobility Scheme, 470
Green Urban Transport Mission, 463
G8+5 Summit, 121
Handbook of Climate Change and India, 4–5
heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) sector, 241
Himalaya, 32, 49
farmers in, 71, 74
Hindu Kush Himalaya, 70
Himalayan glaciers, 37, 311
Himalayan rivers, 499
snowfall in, 36
Himalayan effects, 70–2
‘hothouse earth’, 1
human development index (HDI), 429 (p.565)
Hurricane Harvey, 310
hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC), 231, 232, 235
hydrofluorocarbon (HFC), 230
alternatives, 238–9
consumption, 231–2
discussions under Montreal Protocol, 233
emissions and costs of transitions, 237–9
hydrofluorocarbons and aviation negotiations, 230–43
Kigali Amendment, 240–1
phase-down negotiations in, 233
Ice Ages, 32
impacts of climate change, 6–8
on agriculture, 22, 135, 520–4, 526, 528
anthropogenic, 55
climate finance and, 382
on development outcomes, 2
domestically driven perspective focusing on, 201
on forests, 21
on health of workers, 17
on India, 31–41
India’s vulnerability, 2, 15, 188–91, 199
on Lakshadweep archipelago, 549–50
range of, 309–10
recognition of, 310
Ricardian approach to assess, 528
role of adaptation in, 526
science-based and state-level predictions of, 366
sustainable development, 349, 352
in water sector, 498–502
on weather, 45–58
impacts of, global warming, 64–75
agriculture, 22, 40, 66, 72, 135, 189, 280, 336, 342, 350, 366, 374, 406, 427, 434, 441–2, 462, 478, 503–5, 509, 519–22, 524, 526–9, 531
extreme rainfall in Uttarakhand, 72–4
forests, 21, 82, 90, 128, 170, 225, 337–8, 477–91, 548
Himalayan effects, 70–2
migration of species, 69–70
sea-level rise, displacement, and livelihoods, 66–9
India Energy Security Scenarios (IESS), 336
India Meteorological Department, 34, 64, 308
Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), 49, 64
Indian Network for Climate Change Assessment (INCCA), 189, 340
Indian Ocean, 35
Indian print media, shifting discourse on climate change in, 301–21
climate equity justice and burden sharing, 318–21
climate scepticism, 311–13
dominant themes of news articles, 308–10
frequency of articles, 305–7
methods for media discourse analysis, 303–4
mitigation and adaptation of climate action, 317–18 (p.566)
national and sub-national action, 315–17
policies and politics, stories on, 313–15
Indo-gangetic plain, 520
Industrial Revolution, 97
Infrastructure for Climate Resilient Growth (ICRG), 392
Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Limited (IL&FS), 393
Institute for Governance and Sustainable Development (IGSD), 237
institutions, climate
development of, 338–45
limited institutional engagement, 339
significant climate institutionalization, 339–40
Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs), 404
Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC), 108, 127–8, 136, 176–7, 200, 284, 305, 387
climate justice and, 262
Paris negotiations and, 227
in Warsaw COP of 2013, 226
Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC), 143, 149, 150, 154
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 7, 33, 83, 258, 308
Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, 55
Fifth Assessment Report, 104, 106, 115, 189, 315, 349, 498, 500
Fourth Assessment Report, 189, 196
India’s role in shaping, 115–20
2014 synthesis report, 311
Third Assessment Report, 524
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), 230
differentiation undermined in, 241–3
global market-based measures scheme, 234–5
international climate negotiations, India in
India’s behaviour in, 132–7
reasons for change, 134–7
reasons for continuity, 132–4
International Coalition for Sustainable Aviation (ICSA), 242
International Energy Agency (IEA), 308
International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), 411
International Solar Alliance (ISA), 128, 178, 228
International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), 285
Japan, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand (JUSCANZ), 118–19
Javadekar, Prakash, 170, 177
Jiabao, Wen, 157–8, 161–2, 165–7
Joint Forest Management (JFM), 483–4, 485
Jones, B.F., 523
Kerala Shastra Sahitya Parishad (KSSP), 292
Kerry, John, 170, 172
Keynes, John Maynard, 429
Kigali Amendment, 14
Kitoh, A., 39
Klein, R. J. T., 525 (p.567)
Kumar, D. Nagesh, 49
Kyoto Protocol (KP), 96, 115–21
certified emission reductions, 389
Clean Development Mechanism, 119–20, 153–4, 193–4, 235
common but differentiated responsibilities principle, 116, 126, 164, 211, 234, 261, 297
India’s role in shaping, 115–20
Lakshadweep Action Plan for Climate Change (LAPCC), 550
Lakshadweep archipelago, 549–50
Lancet Commission, 38
land use change/LULUCF, emissions from, 9–10, 21, 32–3, 41, 48–9, 55, 65, 74, 207, 211, 461, 468, 500, 504, 546
Lavasa, Ashok, 12
least developed countries (LDCs), 164, 199, 201
Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF), 383
levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), 411
light-emitting diodes (LEDs), 412–13
Like-Minded Developing Countries (LMDC), 127, 129, 211
Liveability Index for Cities, 470
Mahanadi River basin, 49
Mahant, Krishna, 70
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), 365, 374, 392
Major Economies Forum (MEF), 123, 197
Manmohan Singh Convergence Principle, 103
Market Transformation for Energy Efficiency (MTEE), 412
‘Marrakesh Accords’, 120
Martin-Ortega, J., 527
measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) system, 206
Meher-Homji, V.M., 485
Meyer, Aubrey, 103
micro, small, and medium enterprise (MSME) sector, 280
‘missing sink’, 83
Mission Innovation (MI), 406, 415
Mobarak, A. M., 528
Modi, Narendra, 127–8, 178
Mondal, A., 49
Montreal Protocol, 14, 185, 230, 232–3
Kigali Amendment, 14, 240–1
negotiating HFCs under, 241
Mujumdar, P. P., 49
Mukherjee, Sourav, 49
multiple objectives, 20, 22, 330, 333, 392, 445, 468–9
multiple stressors, 20, 22, 498, 502, 524, 530
multilateral climate change negotiations, main issues in, 206–12
design and architecture, 206–8
differentiation between and among developed and developing countries, 210–12 (p.568)
legal form and character, 208–10
MRV system, 206
Multilateral Fund (MLF), 233, 238, 241
Narmada Bachao Andolan, 263
Natarajan, Jayanthi, 126
National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), 18, 122, 128, 223, 226, 308, 316, 330–2, 336, 340, 350, 354, 361–2, 384, 386, 429, 547–8
National Adaptation Fund on Climate Change (NAFCC), 342, 345, 372, 376, 385, 391–2
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 308
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), 341, 342, 385, 392, 531–2
National Civil Aviation Policy, 239
National Clean Development Mechanism Authority, 339
National Clean Energy and Environment Fund (NCEEF), 393–4
national climate policies and institutions, 329–45
climate institutions, development of, 338–45
domestic climate policy formulation, 339–40
policies relevant to mitigation and energy, 334–5
National Communication (NATCOM), 164, 166
National Democratic Alliance (NDA), 287
National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP), 440
National Fishworkers’ Forum, 263
National Forest Policy
1988, 484
2018, 485
National Green Tribunal, 308
National Innovation Systems, 419–20
Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), 108–9, 177, 201, 335–8, 386, 430
Paris Agreement and, 229
Paris negotiations and, 227–8
SAPCC and, 372
National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE), 332, 412
National Mission on Sustainable Habitat, 463
National Security Adviser (NSA), 165
National Solar Mission (NSM), 331–2
National Steering Committee on Climate Change (NSCCC), 341
National Stock Exchange, 281
National Union of Metal Workers of South Africa (NUMSA), 286
National Water Mission (NWM), 331, 507–8
Nelson, G. C., 527
New Trade Union Initiative (NTUI), 289–4
New York Times, The, 176
Nigam, Sumant, 40 (p.569)
non-banking financial companies (NBFCs), 392–3
non-timber forest products (NTFPs), 478
Obama, Barack, 163–8, 170, 232
Obama–Xi Jinping declaration, 109
O’Brien, K., 524
official development assistance (ODA), 383
Olken, B. A, 523
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 383, 414
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 118, 120, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 154, 194
Painter, James, 304
Palanisami, K., 528
Panda, Architesh, 40
Paris Agreement, 11, 13, 169–85, 243, 320
architecture and core obligations of, 212–14
Article 10, 181
differentiation, 215–16
equity and, 107–9
finance provisions of, 215–16
‘flexibility’ while negotiating, 171–2
heads of state/government, 177–8
and HFC negotiations, 14
legal character, 214–15
operationalization of CBDR&RC, 216
Rulebook, 217
variations among NDCs, 217–18
vs. Kyoto Protocol, 218
People’s Science Institute (PSI), 72
per capita emissions, 9, 10, 101–3, 116–7, 121, 143, 145, 200
‘per capita convergence’, 116
Perform–Achieve–Trade (PAT) scheme, 412, 438–9
Pervin, M., 530
power purchase agreements (PPAs), 288
Prime Minister’s Office (PMO), 157, 223, 339–40
Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (PMUY), 437
Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change (PMCCC), 122–3, 255, 263, 339–40
Project Management Unit (PMU), 342
Public Advocacy Initiatives for Rights and Values in India (PAIRVI), 65, 266
quantitative emission limitation and reduction objective (QELRO), 153
Rajendran, K., 39
Rama Rao, C.A., 524
Ramesh, Jairam, 123–4, 159, 160, 162, 163, 166, 262, 315, 340
Rao, Nirupama, 158
Ravi Chopra Expert Body report, 74
Reiter, P., 40
renewable energy-based electricity generation, 225–6, 279, 409, 411, 415, 445–7, 449 (p.570)
research, development and demonstration (RD&D), 405–6, 415
Rhodes, Ben, 178
Rosenzweig, M., 528
Saran, Samir, 12
Saran, Shyam, 223, 314
Sarkozy, 164–5
sea level, rising, 37–8
sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), 500
SHAKTI scheme, 444
Singh, Manmohan, 121, 158, 161, 232
Sinha, B., 40
Small Island Developing States (SIDS), 164, 180, 188, 199, 227
Smart Cities, 470
Smart Cities Mission, 463
Solar City Programme, 463
Sonali, P., 49
‘South–South cooperation’, 171
Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF), 383
special envoy on climate change, 165, 223, 314, 340
State Action Plans on Climate Change (SAPCC), 308, 316, 333, 336, 341, 350, 370–9, 547–8
agricultural sector and, 532
political ownership of, 375–6
recommendations, 355
status of implementation of, 372–3
State and District Disaster Management Plans, 374
state climate change planning, 349–79
analysis of, 351–67
capacity building and external support, 358–9
implementation of, 363–7
institutional capacity for, 377–8
mainstream climate change, 363–4, 373–4
process of, 355–9
role of mitigation in, 354–5
securing finance for, 364–5
status of implementation of SAPCC, 372–3
sustainable development, linking climate change with, 352
State Disaster Management Plan (SDMP), 532
State Specific Action Plans on Water (SSAPs-Water), 507–8
Stern, Todd, 159, 165, 170
Subramanian, Arvind, 315
sub-national climate policies, 302, 315–17, 329, 333
subsidies, 225, 550
in agricultural electricity, 442
cross and direct, 442, 447
in liquefied petroleum gas connections, 437
Summers, Lawrence, 159
Super-Efficient Equipment Programme (SEEP), 413
sustainable development
and access to energy, 451
business and, 276–7
climate change as an extension of, 195
conceptual framework linking, 366
demands, 86
Indian companies engage on, 277–9 (p.571)
linking climate change with, 352
national missions emphasize on, 386
NDC and, 336
real challenges to achievement of, evidence of, 367
Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), 274, 375, 385–6, 459, 503
Tata Council for Community Initiatives, 278
Tata Global Sustainability Council (TGSC), 279
Technology Executive Committee (TEC), 405, 406, 408
Technology Needs Assessment (TNA), 403
technology transfer, 94, 115–7, 145–8, 163, 177, 181–2, 318–9, 404
technology transition
CTCN, 405, 408
in Indian energy sector, 408–16
Mission Innovation, 406
Technology Executive Committee, 405
UNFCCC and, 403–8
Thaker, Jagadish, 304
Thakur, Bishan, 71
Trade Unions for Energy Democracy (TUED), 285
Transit Oriented Development Policy, 470
Trump, Donald, 275, 311
Ujwal DISCOM Assurance Yojana (UDAY), 439
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), 142
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 392
United Nations Division of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), 405
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 83, 116
Climate and Clean Air Coalition, 232
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 12, 14, 92–6, 100, 106, 117–19
Adaptation Fund under, 341
Bali Action Plan, 122
Biennial Update Report, 342
common but differentiated responsibilities, 116, 126, 164, 197, 211, 234, 318–20
definition of climate finance, 382
Lima Call to Climate Action (2014), 207–8, 210–1
technology and, 399, 400, 403–8
United Nations General Assembly (UNGA)
‘Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee’ under, 116
Resolution 44/207 in 1989, 115
United Progressive Alliance (UPA), 122–3
Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for All (UJALA) programme, 436
urban/urbanization, 21–2, 65, 308, 342, 435, 440, 459–70
approaches to climate change, 461–7
climate-conscious urbanization, 467–70 (p.572)
climate responses, 462–7
multiple objective-based planning, 468–9
Uttarakhand Aapda Rahat Manch, 73
vulnerability, climate, 5, 15, 524
of agricultural land, 67
extreme events and, 58
human rights–based approaches to, 260
losses of life and, 56
Vickery, J., 528
Vijge, Marjanneke J., 482
water resources, 498–514
bridging scales from basin to water user, challenge of, 504–5
climate change in, impact of, 498–502
conflicts on, 513–14
existing initiatives, mainstream climate and synergies in, 507–14
extreme events and, 508–10
limitations of current framework, 502–7
management approach, 506–7
mismatch in demand and supply, 512–13
multiple concerns, 502–3
multiple stressors, 503–4
unsustainability of, 511–12
water quality and environmental health, 513
water supply, impact of hydroclimatic variables on, 500–2
Wehner, Michael, 53
Wills, Alf, 166
World Bank, 277, 308, 356, 383, 391
World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), 274, 276
World Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro in 1992), 273
World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC), 478
World Economic Forum (WEF), 274, 276–7
World Resources Institute (WRI), 81–2
World Trade Organization (WTO), 154, 413
Yafei, He, 161, 166
Yes Bank, 393
Ylä-Anttila, T., 266
Zhao, J., 527
Zhenhua, Xie, 167–8
Zilberman, D., 527