The previous Chapter presented a discussion of the notion of local and global equilibria and shown that these equilibria represent the special forms taken by the distribution function once direct and inverse collisions come into balance. This Chapter provides an elementary introduction to transport phenomena and discusses their intimate relation to non-equilibrium processes at the microscopic scale. In particular it shall deal with the connection between the transport coefficients, such as mass, momentum and energy diffusivity with the molecular mean free path, namely the distance traveled by a representative molecules between two subsequent collisions. The discussion also highlights the fundamental role of inhomogeneity in fueling non-equilibrium processes.
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