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Statistical Physics and ThermodynamicsAn Introduction to Key Concepts$
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Jochen Rau

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780199595068

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199595068.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 03 August 2021

Perfect Gas

Perfect Gas

(p.103) 6 Perfect Gas
Statistical Physics and Thermodynamics

Jochen Rau

Oxford University Press

The perfect gas is perhaps the most prominent application of statistical mechanics and for this reason merits a chapter of its own. This chapter briefly reviews the quantum theory of many identical particles, in particular the distinction between bosons and fermions, and then develops the general theory of the perfect quantum gas. It considers a number of limits and special cases: the classical limit; the Fermi gas at low temperature; the Bose gas at low temperature which undergoes Bose–Einstein condensation; as well as black-body radiation. For the latter we derive the Stefan–Boltzmann law, the Planck distribution, and Wien’s displacement law. This chapter also discusses the effects of a possible internal dynamics of the constituent molecules on the thermodynamic properties of a gas. Finally, it extends the theory of the perfect gas to dilute solutions.

Keywords:   perfect gas, identical particles, bosons, fermions, classical limit, Fermi gas, Bose–Einstein condensation, black-body radiation, internal dynamics, dilute solution

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