This chapter picks up where chapter four left off, fleshing out three major accounts of deliberative systems: discursive, spatial, and sequential, each of which has useful foci and important blind spots in both descriptive and normative terms. Along the way it raises a number of challenges for each of the models, including questions about how each treats democratic norms of inclusion and legitimate decision-making, as well as specifying a ‘memetic’ account of democratic communication rather than a preference-based one. The chapter then focuses on four key steps in an ideal sequence: listening to the narratives and claims of the informal public sphere; structuring those claims and connecting them with reasons; making collective decisions; and doing so in a context of representation as relationship building.
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