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Adult Nursing PracticeUsing evidence in care$
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Ian Bullock, Jill Macleod Clark, and Joanne Rycroft-Malone

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199697410

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199697410.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 23 January 2022

Understanding Bone Conditions

Understanding Bone Conditions

(p.34) 3 Understanding Bone Conditions
Adult Nursing Practice

Anne Sutcliffe

Cameron Swift

Oxford University Press

The aim of this chapter is to provide nurses with the knowledge to be able to assess, manage, and care for people with bone conditions in an evidence-based and person-centred way. Bone conditions (a major category of musculoskeletal conditions) cover a wide spectrum of diseases, some of which may be considered mild and self-limiting, while others may have a significant impact upon the individual’s quality of life and ability to function. It is estimated that up to 30% of all GP consultations are about musculoskeletal complaints; many are age-associated, and population ageing will continue to increase this demand (Oliver, 2009). The chapter will focus on osteoporosis, hip fracture (perhaps the most serious and costly consequence of osteoporosis or osteopaenia), Paget’s disease, and osteoarthritis, respectively. The chapter will provide a broad overview of these common conditions, enabling a proactive approach to patient care within a multidisciplinary context, whether in the primary or secondary care setting. The nursing management of the symptoms and common health problems associated with bone conditions can be found in several Part 2 chapters, and these are highlighted throughout the chapter. Osteoporosis has been defined as:...A progressive systemic skeletal disease characterised by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture. (WHO, 1994)…The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended a clinical definition of osteoporosis based on a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of the spine or hip, expressed in standard deviation (SD) units called T scores. Using this definition, an individual is classified as having osteoporosis if his or her T score is ≤–2.5 SD at the spine or hip (WHO, 1994). It is estimated that osteoporosis occurs in approximately 3 million people in the UK, resulting in more than 230,000 fractures per annum, the most frequent being hip, vertebral body, and forearm fractures. In total, 75,000 hip fractures occur annually (British Orthopaedic Association, 2007), with the average age of incidence being 84 and 83 in men and women, respectively (National Hip Fracture Database, 2010).

Keywords:   T scores, bone loss, hip fracture, osteoarthritis, vertebral fractures

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