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Adult Nursing PracticeUsing evidence in care$
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Ian Bullock, Jill Macleod Clark, and Joanne Rycroft-Malone

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780199697410

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199697410.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 24 January 2022

Understanding Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Understanding Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

(p.75) 5 Understanding Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Adult Nursing Practice

Samantha Prigmore

Jane Scullion

Oxford University Press

The aim of this chapter is to provide nurses with the knowledge to be able to assess, manage, and care for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in an evidence-based and person-centred way. The chapter will provide a comprehensive overview of the causes, risk factors, and impact of COPD, before exploring best practice to deliver care, as well as to prevent or minimize further ill-health. Nursing assessments and priorities are highlighted throughout, and the nursing management of the symptoms and common health problems associated with COPD can be found in Chapters 2, 15, 18, and 22, respectively. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predominantly caused by smoking and is characterized by airflow obstruction that is not fully reversible (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2010). This broad definition embraces previously used definitions such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and chronic asthma. Historically, perceptions of the treatment for and care of the patient with COPD were negative, because of the chronic nature of this progressive disease, which was often viewed as self-inflicted through its links with smoking. Current emphasis, regardless of aetiology, is that it is both preventable and treatable (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2010). Currently around 1 million UK citizens are diagnosed with COPD; prevalence data are higher, at 1.7 million (Britton, 2003). This appears to be underreported because it is thought that there could be as many as another 2 million people currently undiagnosed (British Lung Foundation, 2006). COPD is already a significant burden of disease area, with expectations that, by 2020, it will be the third largest cause of mortality (Murray and Lopez, 1997). Reasons for increasing prevalence include that:… ● an ageing population increases the likelihood of chronic disease development; ● diagnosis of COPD is better guided by both national and international COPD guidelines, with inclusion in the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) in general practice bringing financial incentives for maintaining COPD registers and improving COPD care; ● increasing public awareness leads to more people seeking help on symptom presentation; ● more women being diagnosed, correlating to more women smoking, perhaps owing to greater social acceptability; ● other as yet unknown causes....

Keywords:   alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, cachexia, emphysema, inhalers, long-acting muscarinic antagonists, methylxanthines, nicotine replacement therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, roflumilast

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