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Medicines management for nursing practicePharmacology, patient safety, and procedures$
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Graham Brack, Penny Franklin, and Jill Caldwell

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780199697878

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199697878.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 24 June 2021

Pharmaceutics and Routes of Drug Administration

Pharmaceutics and Routes of Drug Administration

Chapter:
Chapter 4 (p.70) Pharmaceutics and Routes of Drug Administration
Source:
Medicines management for nursing practice
Author(s):

Graham Brack

Penny Franklin

Jill Caldwell

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780199697878.003.0010

All medicines must be administered as prescribed and following the manufacturers’ guidance. The main aim of medicines management is to achieve the desired therapeutic effect for the patient. In order to do this you need to:… ● give the correct medicine, ● at the correct dose, ● to the correct person, ● in the correct formulation, ● by the correct route, and ● at the appropriate time intervals…. This has already been mentioned in Chapter 1. You must consider the dosage, the patient’s weight where appropriate, method of administration , route, and timing (NMC, 2008a). Equally, when preparing to administer any medication, it is important to follow the principles of standard precautions (Glasper et al, 2009). For example, when administering oral medicines you should first wash your hands and then use a non-touch technique to prevent cross infection and to ensure that the drug does not cause you any harm. The way in which a drug is administered will affect the rate and extent of absorption. There are three basic routes for administration of medicines: enteral (via the GI tract), parenteral, and topical (Lilley et al, 2007 ). However, within these a variety of methods can be used. Medicines are introduced into the body via many routes, which include:… ● Oral ● Enteral (via a nasogastric or gastrostomy tube) ● Rectal ● Vaginal ● Respiratory ● Intradermal injection ● Subcutaneous injection ● Intramuscular injection ● Intravenous injection ● Infusions ● Intrathecal and epidural ● Topical/transdermal. …The aim of treatment is to deliver the optimal amount of medication to the part of the body where it will act. Usually we would like the concentration of drug to reach therapeutic levels (the level at which it exerts its medicinal action) as quickly as possible. This usually means that we want a particular level of drug in the bloodstream. The quickest route to achieve therapeutic levels of drugs is the intravenous route, because the drugs are delivered directly into the bloodstream and levels rise as soon as the drug is given. However, this may not be the most appropriate route for the administration of medicines for many reasons.

Keywords:   bioavailability, capsules, enemas, fingertip units, gastroresistant preparations, hydrophilic drugs, inhalers, lotions, medicine spoons, nebulization

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