Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Bioorganic SynthesisAn Introduction$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Gary W. Morrow

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780199860531

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199860531.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 16 October 2021

Brief Organic Review

Brief Organic Review

Chapter:
1 (p.1) Brief Organic Review
Source:
Bioorganic Synthesis
Author(s):

Gary W. Morrow

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780199860531.003.0004

In addition to simple hydrocarbon structures (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic systems) and alkyl groups (methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, etc.), this text assumes a familiarity with the most common functional groups associated with organic chemical structures and their basic reactivity patterns. Table 1.1 summarizes the names and structures of some of the more important functional groups we will be dealing with throughout the remainder of the book. It is important to remember that functional groups containing O or N with nonbonding electrons have an affinity for both protic and Lewis acids and are important participators in H-bonding. Groups containing a carbonyl (C=O) function are especially important, as these bonds are strongly polarized (δ+C=Oδ–), the C atom being electron deficient and the O atom electron excessive; this strong polarization is mainly responsible for the familiar reactivity patterns associated with carbonyl compounds. Figure 1.1 depicts the standard classification of isomers in organic chemical structures. Recall that constitutional isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different atom connectivity, such as 1-butanol versus 2-butanol. Stereoisomers, on the other hand, are compounds with the same formula and the same atom connectivity, differing from one another only in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. These are divided into two groups: enantiomers and diastereomers. Enantiomers are nonsuperimposable mirror image molecules whose asymmetry is usually the result of a tetrahedral carbon atom with four different atoms or groups attached to it, as in the 2-butanol enantiomers. Such chiral molecules rotate the plane of polarized light either (+) or (−) and so are said to be optically active. Achiral molecules, such as 1-butanol, do not rotate the plane of polarized light and so are optically inactive. A standard formalism for representation of a chiral center is to use bond line drawings with two of the four atoms or groups lying in the plane of the paper, a third projecting outward (wedge bond), and the fourth projecting inward (dashed bond).

Keywords:   acetaldehyde, benzofuran, carbinolamine, disulfide linkage, electrophiles, flavonoids, griseofulvin, imines, linalool

Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .