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The BorderPolicy and Politics in Europe and the United States$
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Martin A. Schain

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780199938674

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199938674.001.0001

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Where Are the Gates?

Where Are the Gates?

The Variable Border and Border Control

(p.25) 2 Where Are the Gates?
The Border

Martin A. Schain

Oxford University Press

This chapter explores the question of where the border has been controlled in Europe and the United States. The border is not a uniform area of control, but an area that is controlled at different points in different ways. Some points of control may indeed be somewhere on the lines of the map, while others may be deep within the territory of the state. Others, moreover, are far from the state itself, in the territory of other states. Border control varies and defines different aspects of the frontier. This chapter also explores variations in the regulation of people and trade. How is it possible to regulate movement of people across the border, in the face of economic forces that push for greater openness, while security concerns and powerful political forces push toward greater closure? The chapter examines whether the hardening of border control for people necessarily obstructs the growth of free trade.

Keywords:   liberal paradox, third-country nationals, externalized border, family unification, visas, interior enforcement, island enforcement

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