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The BorderPolicy and Politics in Europe and the United States$
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Martin A. Schain

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780199938674

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780199938674.001.0001

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The Shaping of Policy

The Shaping of Policy

(p.74) 4 The Shaping of Policy
The Border

Martin A. Schain

Oxford University Press

This chapter explores patterns of policy enforcement of the variable border: where it is enforced and with what effectiveness. Policies reflect intentions to control migration patterns across the variable border, and to shape and constrain how the border actually functions. The chapter examines how the implementation of border controls reshapes policy on the ground. Control appears to be effective on both sides of the Atlantic. At the same time, a large number of migrants have gained access for long-term residence. Effective controls have shaped migration, but have also permitted large numbers of immigrants to enter from year to year. Most decision-making on entry has been externalized to countries of origin, where most people desiring to enter are granted visas. Most rejections are at land and sea ports, in part because these applications for admission are made for asylum, which is governed by more demanding rules and a different process.

Keywords:   visa refusal rates, Ceuta, Malila, asylum recognition, UNHCR, Frontex, safe third country

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